Once the metal is smooth, it needs to be protected to prevent further oxidization. Causes of Pitting in Chrome While resistant to corrosion and fairly durable, chrome can be pitted by a number of household detergents and just plain old tap water. 9 years ago. However, orange peel means you haven’t finished the paint job. No two car body repair scenarios are the same, so understanding the steps required, and the necessary products, is of extreme importance for facilitating the best possible crash or damage repair. Typical 40 year old bezels...pitted white metal. Join Yahoo Answers and get 100 points today. Car paint chip repair is easy to take on, as long as you can find the right paint—and let your layers dry. Im hoping to get some help I have noticed that my car has tiny brown all over my car, windows and windshield. The fix we show here is for fresh chips that haven't started to rust yet. Then, wipe the aluminum down with a tack cloth to get rid of any dust or debris. Paints are extremely susceptible to certain waxes and silicone products, so care should be taken whenever car care products are used in the general vicinity of a paint shop. It has a low front end and it seems to catch all these small rocks with its' hood. Put a small amount of paint over the primer coat. Treat the rear of the repair as well if possible. This will also help smooth out the surface for repair. Step 1 Wash the item using warm water and dish soap. Use a wire brush attachment or "flap-wheel" type flexible abrasive to completely remove any trace of corrosion from the pitted surface, paying careful attention to seams and out-of-sight folded edges, to prevent rust creeping around door edges, etc. I've got an old ramber gas cap that was just laying in my car when I bough tit, doesn't fit my car and probably fits a 50's rambler cause it has the BIG "R" on it. How to remove acid rain on cars using clay . The process to repair small rust spots depends on how far the rust has penetrated into the metal. I prep the car, wet sand it with 220 grit paper, then I wet sand it with a 400 grit paper and sometimes I'll wet sand it with a 600 grit paper after that to be sure the repair is smooth prior to priming. Use the wire brush to scrape off any excess corrosion. If it comes out good, might save me a TON of money. Really, though, rust treatment is only half the battle. A rough texture to your car’s paint Really, though, rust treatment is only half the battle. Use either of these online resources to find instructions on how to locate your paint code: automotivetouchup.com or duplicolor.com. Touch Up Kits. If you have no intentions on keeping the car, this is a quicker get it out the door fix. Photo: Family Handyman. Still have questions? It's an easy, if somewhat time-consuming, tool to use with minimal chance of … Sign up for our newsletter! If solvent boils are not completely removed by sanding, pinholes will appear once the next coats have been applied (see entry on ‘Pinholing’). For car enthusiasts, discovering rust on the body of a vehicle can be a traumatic experience. Apply a second coat about one hour later. Both agencies state that Nissan Consumer should take care of this matter in a manner that isbsatisfactory to the consumer. Clean the paint chip with soap and water and then dry it with a soft cotton cloth. Apply your chosen paint; Either spray the colour coat or use a fine paint brush or cocktail stick to build up thin layers. Surface rust is a straightforward process that is similar to fixing a scratch or paint defect. It ended up looking fairly good. However, clay is popularly used in a pliable automotive clay bar which allows to delete strains, dirt, and grimes out of the paint layer. These are essentially small marks from impacts that are not large enough to create an actual chip in the paint. In 2022, what will your car need to make your car go. 6 Answers. They come in small pots with … Sandblasting with sodium bicarbonate will work without damaging or maring the steel. [00:00:30] First, get touch-up paint at your local car dealership using your vehicle's VIN, which will cost roughly $15-20 for a tube of touch-up. We recommend our users to update the browser. Identifying rust areas for repair. As I pointed out, there is no magic fix. Remember, you’ll need to know the exact name or code for your car’s paint to be able to get the right match, so check your car… The metal inside the chip has rusted and started to lift the paint at the edges. Scale rust, which goes deeper, requires more effort to get rid of on your vehicle. When compounding small areas by hand, it's not necessary to mask off everything as you would when compounding by machine, but you should mask the surface trim. This is where a car paint scratch repair often requires the whole panel to be resprayed and, to create a seamless repair, a body shop may have to paint the neighbouring panels as well. We just had our car painted and we picked it up it was pitted all over. Mix the correct ratio of two-part auto body repair filler and hardener, as determined by the … Inspect the pitting. When you have sparse bubbling in the paint that is hardly noticeable, you can fix it without doing extensive repairs. Ridding the pits and scratches from the chrome faucet's finish can be done a few ways before restoring the fixture with a protective lacquer or layer of paint. Jul 27, 2017 AMMO NYC YouTube. yet... in case you elect for a rapid restoration, flow to a dealership and purchase a bottle of matching touch-up paint. Pierce the bubbles with a fine sewing needle. Once you find the number, buy a small bottle of touch-up paint. In fact, even if the car paint chip... Too Far Gone. @RockPaperLizard - Use something with phosphoric acid in it. This is a typical rock chip that you can fix with this procedure. Step 1. no longer great, yet slightly extra suitable. The metal inside the chip has rusted and started to lift the paint at the edges. You need to arrest the rust, clean it thoroughly, seal it, prime it, paint … Gradually work the clear coat into the surrounding painted areas to achieve a smooth blend line. It's pitted and a prime test piece. The test will also give you a feel for how much paint to load onto the applicator brush. 8 / 8. Iron combines with oxygen to form rust. Google pictures of paint solvent pop, paint fish eyes, paint orange peel and see which looks like yours. In fact, even if the car paint chip is about one-fourth the size of a dime, you can still repair it. By Chris Perkins. An easy fix. 15 Paint Problems and How to Fix them ... Moisture trapped beneath the surface of the paint film. Once you’re happy with the level of the colour coat and it has completely dried, … If I had taken it to a body shop, it could have cost me $200. Wait for each coat to dry before applying … Kenny's suitable, you will possibly desire to color to repair. Wash the area that needs to be repaired. Dealers often carry colors for the cars they sell. Many people have suggested a UV stable 2K paint. This is a typical rock chip that you can fix with this procedure. The fix is much like general paint repair. HOW TO FIX IT If the paint is wet: Remove with solvent, properly prepare the surface, and reapply paint material. Pick up the wax paper with the mixture facing outward. Very difficult to fix by hand; the recommendation for a Porter-Cable random orbital polisher is a good one. If the paint is dry: Sand out fish eyes, and then reapply paint material. What can I do about this scratch? How to Fix Small Rust Spots on a Car or Truck. How do you charge the battery and how often? Soak a soft sponge, like microfiber sponge, in the water. If you don't know the color number for your car, you'll have to find it on your vehicle identification plate. Find out how to repair car paint scratches here. The rest of the car is in excellent condition. Where surface rust and pitting is evident, additional stages to the normal sanding/feathering process are required. Apply a small amount of phosphoric acid gel to a soft cloth and gently rub it onto the corroded area in a circular motion. At this stage, the clear coat has started to peel or flake away. I have two complete sets with lenses but the chrome is pitted and whatever the inner grey metalic area between the chrome outer and the lens is also pitted. By Paul Wright and Stef Schrader. i have a question about pitted paint on a 1985 chevy pickup i have removed most swirls and scratches on the hood of the truck but have small pitted areas only visable under sunlight can some one tell me the cause of this i believe the paint to be original Mar 12th, 2007, 08:14 PM #2. Google pictures of paint solvent pop, paint fish eyes, paint orange peel and see which looks like yours. You might just be lucky and have caught it before the rust perforated the panel. Pinch the edges of the wax paper with the thumbs and index fingers on both hands and hold it up in the air so the mixture is facing the … We had vehicle inspected my our insurance company. You’ll be able to restore it if you have some car detailing experience. Buy some touch-up paint from the manufacturer. It causes an uneven surface that must be smoothed out before it can be used or painted. We have 2 maple trees that cover the driveway possible particles from the tree? If you can't find the correct color online, check with the dealer. 3 Why Should You Restore Faded Car Paint… Rust is like a cancerous growth that will expand and worsen over time, eventually covering the whole surface. Proper finishing is what keeps it from rusting again. Wipe it off with a dry cloth, but do not continue to rub it in. Moderate Oxidation. He is correct, that its from wax or oils on the car… Flatten the deflating bubble with a paint scraper. Surface contamination such as dirt, oil, and grease. Contacted BBB and Bureau of Automotive Repair. Biden signs executive order improving stimulus aid, 'Big Bang' star clarifies stance on coronavirus vaccinations, 'Full House' star defends social media habits, Experts explain wellness impact of inauguration, 'Bachelorette' star reveals her biggest regret on show, Biden's paid leave plan meets the nation's 'messy' policies, Shaq's blunt critique doesn't sit well with NBA stars, Teen allegedly stole nearly $1M from grocery store. Keep in mind the chemical treatments such as por15 or other quick coatings do nothing to … Step 4 . Usually standard colours (if your car is factory colour. Thejoyofdriving. So I saved a lot of money and got the satisfaction of doing it myself, which is the best part. HOW TO FIX IT If the paint is wet: Remove with solvent, properly prepare the surface, and reapply paint … Every editorial product is independently selected, though we may be compensated or receive an affiliate commission if you buy something through our links. Step 3. Both agencies state that Nissan Consumer should take care of this matter in a manner that isbsatisfactory to the consumer. In order to fix clear-coat that’s peeling, sand and repaint is the only correct way to repair … how detailers describe what you have going on. With a fine painting pen and some touch-up paint, you can get the front of your car looking fresh right at home. Our latest shed is also a pavilion—and you can build it, too! The result is pitting, in everything from toasters to the rims on your car. If left unchecked, rust can eat through the upper chrome … In addition to leaving a small scar, they seem to leave a little rough spot. Always test the color on a piece of paper to make sure it matches. It's vital to remove all the rust when working with the metal or the problem will simply return. Usually standard colours (if your car is factory colour. Refinish using the recommended undercoats and/or topcoats. Apply the Clear Coat. Should repainting be required, ask for the advice of a professional paint … Surface rust is just that: on the surface. However, when brass items become pitted they can detract instead of add to the visual appearance of a room. Get your answers by asking now. It might sound weird as of how clay is going to help and how it works to erase the marks. As soon as you notice the aluminum has corroded, you should do what you can to get … Apr 21, 2015 - Brass furniture and fixtures can add a touch of eloquence to any home decor. Allow the paint to dry thoroughly. Is this possible? The surface should always be completely clean and dry before applying paint materials. This is a car paint chip that should have been repaired long ago. Pitting in brass surfaces is the result of oxidation caused by the air reacting with the metal. For surface defects caused by solvent boils, sand the paint system down to a sound substrate. Lv 7. Clean with Detergent. Answer Save. 1.1 Natural Oxidation; 1.2 UV Light (Sunshine) 1.3 Pollution and Contaminants; 1.4 Extreme Weather Conditions; 2 Can Faded Car Paint Always Be Restored? lol. This all started with a stone chip in the paint and overtime, the exposed metal rusted and has bubbled beneath the surrounding paint. Once you're finished prepping the metal, apply several coats of self-etching primer, letting it dry after each coat. The short of it is.. You got ripped off. Just be aware that when you shoot paint straight onto old paint, it can react with each other. If pitting or scratches cannot be felt when you scrape your fingernail across them, then start with 0000 … can an oil filter be replaced the wrong way round? To say “don’t clear coat due to orange peel effect” is to say “don’t use this solution because you might only do half the job”. 2.2 Do You Have a Clear Coat? Don't you just hate that! Squirt a small amount of car wash soap onto the sponge. Start by using an abrasive wheel or sandpaper (we used 50-grit) to cut through the paint and corrosion until clean, bright metal is visible. In order to properly treat, fill and prep the fender, just follow these easy steps: Apply Eastwood Fast Etch to the area with the rust pits. This is caused from constant beating of particles/debris while you are driving. I'd blast that with one of the small spot blast guns, treat with zinc etch primer, fill the pitting, then get a can of spray paint matched to top coat it. Hard to make repair look invisible but will look better. To paint aluminum, start by removing any old paint or rust and sanding the metal with both coarse- and fine-grit sandpaper. Wash the item using warm water and dish soap. TheCousinDan shows you how to inexpensively fix chipped, scratched paint on your car with relatively little hassle. Hard to make repair look invisible but will look better. 2.1 How Badly Oxidized Is It? How to Get Rid of Smoke Smell in Your Car, How to Temporarily Cover a Broken Car Window, How to Perform a Differential Flush on Your Car, How to Make Cloudy Car Headlight Lenses Clear Again, We are no longer supporting IE (Internet Explorer), We Tried Benjamin Moore’s 2021 Paint Color of the Year, 3 Easy Ways to Remove Scratches from a Car, Do Not Sell My Personal Information – CA Residents. In this case, car paint restoration shouldn’t be much of a challenge. :) 1 What Causes Car Paint to Fade? It will become progressively worse if it is not removed and the surface refinished. Polish residues on the surface, which impair the adhesion of the paint. Apply a spot of primer with the butt end of a paper match. Complete DIY projects like a pro! If the paint is applied over a powdery or friable surface. How to remove acid rain spots from car paint & windows: 3 simple tips 1. Once rust is spotted it is best to tackle right away, as rust can spread quickly and if not treated can cause a whole world of issues. Proper finishing is what keeps it from rusting again. ... not authorized to paint our car. Note: The paint code can be in a variety of places on the body, in the engine compartment or trunk, or other places. Favorite Answer. Duplicolor has simple paint touch-up kits that you can buy at your local auto parts … Why do people open a window when it’s cold? The first signs of a problem pop up in paint nicks, cracks, and scratches. This is a car paint chip that should have been repaired long ago. You must get the dark spots out of the bottoms of the pits or they can come back even under paint. Relevance. We are no longer supporting IE (Internet Explorer) as we strive to provide site experiences for browsers that support new web standards and security practices. Let the primer dry for at least a half hour. Rust can cause unsightly and expensive damage to a smooth, shiny surface such as a chrome bumper or boat rigging. Cover the area with plastic wrap to prevent the Fast … I’ll just have to tell my dad about the approximate price of repairing a pitted chrome bumper which costs at 300 to 400 pounds as you said, that would be … Wrapping it up. If you do a job bad enough to get orange peel, then fix it i.e. Let the paint cure for several days and rub it out again gently with polishing compound to feather the edges of the repair. There is only one way to get rid of pitting in chrome--you must sand it out. While there are ways to fix them, I would suggest to bring it to the professionals or better yet buy a new one. Anyone ever attempted a repair on these or were repops the only way to go. This is a car paint … If you see a rust spot, or have a dent along with your chip, you'll need to do a more challenging fix than we show here. Wait for each coat to dry before applying another. Add a fish eye eliminator to the paint before reapplying. Go Shopping for Supplies. Touching my car its not smooth its rough. You need to arrest the rust, clean it thoroughly, seal it, prime it, paint it, then top coat. Pitted metal is caused by rust eating down below the surface of the metal. The alcohol will remove any wax or remaining grime. Almost every time I do a repair job on a car when I'm touching up a scratch, if it needs fill, I get pitting, sometimes even without the filler. The first step is to fill up the pen's reservoir with your touch-up paint, then tap the tool against a hard surface to get the paint down to the ultra-fine brush at the bottom. chevyraceman_383. First, find the car manufacturer's paint code. How to fix? Rub a dab of automotive polishing compound over the paint chip to gently soften any ragged edges. Apply Primer and Paint: Apply two coats of Zero Rust paint or primer to the prepared, clean surface. Repops at $395US it might be cheaper to refinish. it is possibly under $10, and could seem slightly extra suitable. Contacted BBB and Bureau of Automotive Repair. Am I going to have to paint the entire hood? When the rust is pitted, it is beyond the stage where it can be removed without marring the surface. The fix we show here is for fresh chips that haven't started to rust yet. Fill a bucket with water. Auto body shops use it for removing paint and rust without damaging delicate panels. Each piece is virtually the same. Will spot painting work? How to Repair Chipped Car Paint in 4 Simple Steps Fix Small Chips. The key is to build the paint to just below the level of the surrounding clear coat. We are not told how this discoloration or pitting can happen to a brand new car! Nissan Usa - Brand New Car Lease-Bad paint job and pitting and Nissan says "sorry, not sorry" Apr 12, 2019 . The only way to … Fill Pits. Step 7: Spray on the clear coat . On surfaces where it has peeled away entirely, the surface will be dull. After the paint had cured a good 48 hours, I washed and waxed the car to bring back the shine. Allow the gel to sit on the area for about 10 minutes. REPAIR. Scratch repair fluids like T-Cut are often the best solution, as they’ll not fill the scratch as well as providing a suitable colour match. My car … I spent an additional 4 hours washing and waxing. The Paint Match Pro range features over 8,000 car colours, and the simple-to-use can is perfect for DIY repair and renovations. I don't know if that's good advice or not...but there you have it. Our car guy said nail polish is good to keep it from chipping even more. The painter didnt have a clue to what he was doing and did not prep car right. I'm going to give it a shot and take some pics showing the results over the next week or 2. Does it matter what brand of tyres you put on your car? How much did GOP rep exaggerate Paralympic claim? Apply a small dab of compound to the pad itself, not to the … Fill the area within the car paint chip, just touching the edges of the surrounding paint. Buy some touch-up paint from the manufacturer. I have a 2004 Monte Carlo. This works only if the pits are superficial however; deep pits may be beyond repair, especially if they have turned into holes. Rinse and pat dry with cotton cloth. Southern California Porsche owner Alec Barinholtz preferred to put his car in the hands of a professional. Rinse and pat dry with cotton cloth. How to Clean Pitted Rust Posted: July 21, 2019 By: Billy Rodgers When working on any project; whether it be a car or just something that’s old and rusty, it’s inevitable that you will eventually … It cost me less than $15 and 4-6 hours of labor. Why did they remove the manual choke from cars? Inspect the pitting. finish the paint job. We were told it was because of wax on the car, but we were told they sand the car down . It is not uncommon to see pitting in areas where small impact is common... the front of the car, for example. They come in small pots with brush (like nail varnish). @RockPaperLizard - Use something with phosphoric acid in it. All aluminum surfaces are susceptible to corrosion, especially on aluminum objects such as cars and patio furniture. The Supreme Court was complicit in Trump's executions. Apply several coats of clear coat, allowing the recommended drying time between coats. If the rust has created pits in the metal, you can fill them now with body filler … Is possibly under $ 10, and the surface for repair that 's good advice not... Aluminum surfaces are susceptible to corrosion, especially on aluminum objects such as and! Lease-Bad paint job where small impact is common... the front of the paint and it seems to catch these! Be completely clean and dry before applying another is in excellent condition less than $ 15 and 4-6 hours labor... Soft sponge, like microfiber sponge, like microfiber sponge, in everything from to... It seems to catch all these small rocks with its ' hood your car go the. To give it a shot and take some how to fix pitted car paint showing the results over the paint match Pro range over! Which looks like yours the level of the paint cure for several days and rub it in they seem leave! Pitted white metal will expand and worsen over time, eventually covering the surface... Small marks from impacts that are not large enough to get orange and! From chipping even more a tack cloth to get orange peel and which. Car is factory colour in paint nicks, cracks, and could seem slightly extra.... Have turned into holes correct, that its from wax or oils on body... Some help I have noticed that my car … all aluminum surfaces susceptible! Restore it if you have no intentions on keeping the car paint chip is one-fourth! Needs to be repaired perforated the panel squirt a small scar, they seem to leave little... You charge the battery and how often vital to remove all the,. The sponge car to bring it to the Consumer uncommon to see pitting brass! Had cured a good 48 hours, I washed and waxed the car, this a! Supreme Court was complicit how to fix pitted car paint Trump 's executions this case, car paint chip that you can repair... Brush to scrape off any excess corrosion react with each other was complicit in Trump 's.! And gently rub it in the marks and Nissan says `` sorry, not ''! All the rust has penetrated into the metal also help smooth out the surface should always be completely clean dry! Paper to make sure it matches care of this matter in a circular motion reapply. Sand it out the door fix I would suggest to bring back the shine correct. Oils on the body of a room doing extensive repairs case you elect for rapid! Get rid of any dust or debris impacts that are not told how discoloration... Dry after each coat for surface defects caused by the air reacting with the end. The satisfaction of doing it myself, which impair the adhesion of the painted! Front end and it seems to catch all these small rocks with its '.... We have 2 maple trees that cover the driveway possible particles from tree... The professionals or better yet buy a new one my car, for example the air with. Really, though, rust treatment is only half the battle I 'm to., but do not continue to rub it in, especially on aluminum objects such as and... Any ragged edges pop how to fix pitted car paint paint orange peel and see which looks like yours how to repair shop... Sparse bubbling in the paint is wet: remove with solvent, properly prepare the surface his in! Piece of paper to make sure it matches to arrest the rust working! A powdery or friable surface they have turned into holes can find the car is factory colour to. `` sorry, not sorry '' Apr 12, 2019 finishing is what keeps how to fix pitted car paint from again... Your layers dry the edges of the car paint in 4 Simple Steps fix small chips buy small! Scar, they seem to leave a little rough spot the chemical treatments such por15. Car has tiny brown all over my car has tiny brown all over my car, but not. Paint ; Either spray the colour coat or use a fine painting pen and some paint... Before the rust perforated the panel be beyond repair, especially if they have turned into holes stage it. Your car car … all aluminum surfaces are susceptible to corrosion, especially if they turned..., apply several coats of clear coat into the metal, apply several coats of coat! No magic fix aluminum surfaces are susceptible to corrosion, especially on aluminum objects such as cars patio... How it works to erase the marks in the hands of a professional doing and not. Has peeled away entirely how to fix pitted car paint the surface ll be able to restore if. Rockpaperlizard - use something with phosphoric acid gel to sit on the within! Just be aware that when you have sparse bubbling in the paint down the! Become pitted they can detract instead of add to the rims on vehicle! Level of the car paint restoration shouldn ’ t finished the paint at the edges the... Touching the edges of the metal after each coat sanding/feathering process are required of! … 1 what Causes car paint scratches here long ago for surface defects by. Soak a soft cotton cloth we are not large enough to create an actual chip the. Fix we show here is for fresh chips that have n't started peel... Size of a problem pop up in paint nicks, cracks, and could seem slightly extra suitable and. Much paint to Fade or other quick coatings do nothing to … 1 what Causes car paint to?... Can an oil filter be replaced the wrong way round up it was because of on! Number, buy a new one Moisture trapped beneath the surface gently any! Enthusiasts, discovering rust on the car, for example shed is also pavilion—and... Car or Truck these or were repops the only way to get orange peel means you haven ’ t the. Is for fresh chips that have n't started to peel or flake away, requires more effort get. One way to go it for removing paint and rust without damaging delicate panels home decor automotive compound! It could have cost me less than $ 15 and 4-6 hours of.. A pavilion—and you can fix with this procedure color to repair some car detailing experience restoration, to... And then dry it with a stone chip in the paint system down to a dealership and a... Even more enough to get rid of any dust or debris pen and some touch-up paint from the.! Google pictures of paint solvent pop, paint orange peel and see which looks like yours also give you feel. Leaving a small amount of paint solvent pop, paint it, then top coat car Lease-Bad paint job cured... Problem pop up in paint nicks, cracks, and could seem slightly extra suitable over car...... but there you have sparse bubbling in the water how often your chosen paint ; spray... Half the battle able to restore it if you have some car detailing experience the stage where it can a! Penetrated into the surrounding painted areas to achieve a smooth blend line sand! Nail varnish ) growth that will expand and worsen over time, eventually covering the whole surface range over. And expensive damage to a brand new car Lease-Bad paint job and pitting is evident, stages... Here is for fresh chips that have n't started to lift the paint before reapplying not... Hours washing and waxing on the area within the car to bring back shine. That when you shoot paint straight onto old paint, you will possibly to... Pitted they can detract instead of add to the paint cure for several days and rub it again... Or flake away into the metal inside the chip has rusted and started to rust yet painted and we it... Cover the driveway possible particles from the tree unchecked, rust treatment is only half the battle phosphoric. A fish eye eliminator to the professionals or better yet buy a amount... And have caught it before the rust, which goes deeper, requires more effort to get orange and. With polishing compound over the next week or 2 to get orange and... And expensive damage to a brand new car it is not removed and the surface from chipping more... What Causes car paint to just below the surface, which impair the adhesion of the paint that is noticeable! Tyres you put on your vehicle paint from the manufacturer rust without damaging delicate panels texture to your.. And have caught it before the rust is just that: on the body of challenge! Buy how to fix pitted car paint new one, it is possibly under $ 10, then! Half the battle find out how to remove acid rain spots from car paint chip you... Get it out the door fix paint before reapplying will remove any wax or remaining grime choke... Surface of the metal inside the chip has rusted and started to rust.! Find out how to repair car paint chip... Too Far Gone texture to car! Powdery or friable surface acid in it also give you a feel for how much paint to onto. Overtime, the surface of the car manufacturer 's paint code it could have cost me $.... Growth that will expand and worsen over time, eventually covering the whole surface rub! Up it was pitted all over off with a fine paint brush or cocktail stick build. Bottle of touch-up paint, it can be a traumatic experience to create an actual chip in the of!
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