history of agriculture in ethiopia

However, these cattle do relatively well under the traditional production system. However, beginning in 1987 the decline in world coffee prices, reduced Ethiopia's foreign-exchange earnings. [5], Wheat stem rust threatens the Ethiopian harvest every year and recently that especially means Ug99. There is successive development in agricultural productivity. Prior to the Revolution, urbanization increased the demand for fruit, leading to the establishment of citrus orchards in areas with access to irrigation in Shewa, Arsi, Hararghe, and Eritrea. [5], During the imperial era, the government failed to implement widespread conservation measures, largely because the country's complex land tenure system stymied attempts to halt soil erosion and improve the land. After 1975 the revolutionary government used peasant associations to accelerate conservation work throughout rural areas. Tokyo: Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Extension and Education Division). Per capita meat consumption was high by developing countries' standards, an estimated thirteen kilograms annually. agriculture can be proposed to have taken place - cereal cultivation in the grassier, drier northern and eastern fringes of the Ethiopian plateau and ensete cultivation in the rainy and once densely forested highland zones, particularly the southwest. Meat and milk yields are low and losses high, especially among calves and young stock. [5], Ethiopia's demand for grain continued to increase because of population pressures, while supply remained short, largely because of drought and government agricultural policies, such as price controls, which adversely affected crop production. Ethiopia encompasses a wide variety of agroecologies and peoples. A 1979 study showed that around Addis Ababa individual holdings ranged from 1.0 to 1.6 hectares and that about 48 percent of the parcels were less than one-fourth of a hectare in size. Origin of the Agency Ethiopia is a country of natural contrasts, with waterfalls and volcanic hot spring, dry desert lands and rich fertile soil. Between 1976 and 1985, the government constructed 600,000 kilometers of agricultural embankments on cultivated land and 470,000 kilometers of hillside terraces, and it closed 80,000 hectares of steep slopes for regeneration. It will be able to accomplish this, mostly through small-scale schemes. [11]. [29] ploughing the land to soften the land takes three months and from sowing and seedling to the harvesting of the crops requires three to four months. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 11(4): 301-316. Nonetheless, agricultural output rose by an estimated 3 percent in 1990–91, almost certainly in response to the relaxation of government regulation. Grains are the most important field crops and the chief element in the diet of most Ethiopians. Ethiopia is well positioned because highland temperatures make it ideal for horticulture, the average wage rate is US$20 per month (compared to US$60 a month in India), the price of leased land is about US$13 per hectare, and the government has tremendously aided the entry of new businesses into this sector in recent years. Domestically, coffee contributed about 20% of the government's revenue. While by 1988 a total of 3600 Service Cooperatives were serving 4.4 million households and almost 4000 Producer cooperatives comprising 302,600 households had been founded, in that year they represented only 5.5% of national cereal production. By African, standard rural development programme has long history in Ethiopia. Ethiopia, An Ancient Land: Agriculture, History, and Politics provides the historical perspective on agriculture in Ethiopia. Typhus: The Army’s Disease. Coffee grows wild in many parts of the country, although most Ethiopian coffee is produced in the Oromia Region (63.7%) and in the SNNPR (34.4%), with lesser amounts in the Gambela Region and around the city of Dire Dawa. The article covers the prehistory and history of Ethiopia from its emergence as an empire under the Aksumites to its current form as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia as well as the history of other areas in what is now Ethiopia such as the Afar Triangle.The Ethiopian Empire (Abyssinia) was first founded by Ethiopian people in the Ethiopian Highlands. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. INTRODUCTION Eighty-three percent of the population depends directly on agriculture for their livelihoods, while many others depend on agriculture-related cottage industries such as textiles, He is the author of From Poverty to Famine in Northeast Ethiopia: A Rural History, 1900–1935 and has worked with many international aid and agricultural organizations on issues of agriculture and land use in northeastern Africa. The beneficial climate in the Highlands of Ethiopia also enabled irrigation and other advanced agricultural technology. [19] It is estimated to number over 150 million in 2007/2008. Agriculture in Ethiopia ( Yearbook of Agriculture), Vols. Vavilov was also of the opinion of the importance of Ethiopia as ‘a zone of agricultural origin.’ An equally ancient form of food production in Ethiopia … (1974). This has contributed for low By 1989, the area covered by the State Farms had grown to a total of 220,000 hectares. There also was concern that villagization could have a negative impact on fragile local resources, accelerate the spread of communicable diseases, and increase problems with plant pests and diseases. Agriculture has been practiced for centuries in Ethiopia. In addition to its domestic use, sesame is also the principal export oilseed. Matouš, P., Y. Todo, et al. Ethiopia - Ethiopia - Economy: Under Haile Selassie I (reigned 1930–74), Ethiopia’s economy enjoyed a modicum of free enterprise. Such wide price variations created food shortages because farmers as well as private merchants withheld crops to sell on the black market at higher prices.[5]. (Published under the auspices of AAASA.) Agriculture -- Ethiopia -- History Resource Information The concept Agriculture -- Ethiopia -- History represents the subject, aboutness, idea or notion of resources found in Boston University Libraries . Ethiopia, An Ancient Land: Agriculture, History, and Politics provides the historical perspective on agriculture in Ethiopia. Ethiopia’s economy is dependent on agriculture, which accounts for 40 percent of the GDP, 80 percent of exports, and an estimated 75 percent of the country's workforce. [25], Most of Ethiopia's estimated 48 million sheep and goats are raised by small farmers who used them as a major source of meat and cash income. It features and analyzes the country’s agricultural progress from 1960s to date, and some future prospects. ... difficult to access land for persons who wants to engage in agriculture. During the rainy seasons, water and grass are generally plentiful, but with the onset of the dry season, forage is generally insufficient to keep animals nourished and able to resist disease. The primary objective of this dissertation is to reconstruct the history of the Omotic societies of southwestern Ethiopia. Production jumped from 43,500 tons in 1974/75 to 74,900 tons in 1984/85. Niger seed is found mostly in the northern and central highlands at elevations between 1,800 and 2,500 meters. It has been one of the oldest civilizations in Africa. Resembling the banana but bearing an inedible fruit, the plant produces large quantities of starch in its underground rhizome and an above-ground stem that can reach a height of several meters. For the past three or four regimes, in the history of agriculture there was no development in agricultural productivity, rather the legacy of poverty and food insecurity as a serious challenge were inherited. Ethiopia is also Africa's second biggest maize producer. Demand for vegetables has stimulated truck farming around the main urban areas such as Addis Ababa and Asmera. This simple example justifies the relevance of organic matter as well as microorganisms in soils and their interactions to enrich soil fertility. Of an estimated 750,000 hectares of private commercial farms in operation at the time of the 1975 land proclamation, 67,000 hectares were converted into State Farms that, beginning in 1979, were operated by a new Ministry of State Farms. Coffee fetches the largest foreign exchange. & YEMERU, B. history of agriculture in ethiopia, Agricultural Research & Technology: Open Access Journal et al. These regions are condemned to the strictly enforced division of labor rules set by the North. Ethiopia is one of the least developed countries in Sub-Saharan Africa with nearly 100 million people, of which 80.5% of the rural population is relied on agriculture for their livelihoods. Mengistu told the 1989 WPE party congress that at US$0.32 per kilogram, foreign-exchange earnings from coffee would have dropped by 240 million Birr, and government revenue would have been reduced by 140 million Birr by the end of 1989. These areas are used by pastoralists who move back and forth in the area following the availability of pasture for their animals. GDP From Agriculture in Ethiopia averaged 239.16 ETB Billion from 1999 until 2018, reaching an all time high of 624 ETB Billion in 2018 and a record low of 98.30 ETB Billion in 2002. [8] This has raised fears of food being exported to more prosperous countries while the local population faces its own shortage. As a result, a number of Indian entrepreneurs are relocating to Ethiopia to develop its thriving flower industry which has led to gains in market share at the expense of neighboring countries. Other articles where History of Ethiopia is discussed: Ethiopia: From prehistory to the Aksumite kingdom: …is of great antiquity in Ethiopia is indicated by the Hadar remains, a group of skeletal fragments found in the lower Awash River valley. Resultantly there has been significant uptake of resistant wheat varieties among Ethiopian farmers since 2014. However, the production has remained subsistence with the bulk of commodity exports coming from the smallholder agricultural farmers. "Roles of extension and ethno-religious networks in acceptance of resource-conserving agriculture among Ethiopian farmers." These types of soils are found in much of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region (SNNPR). By Dr. Richard Pankhurst. As many as 4.6 million people need food assistance annually. Ensete flour constitutes the staple food of the local people. State farms sold their output to the AMC. Ethiopia's agriculture is plagued by periodic drought, soil degradation[1] caused by overgrazing, deforestation, high levels of taxation and poor infrastructure (making it difficult and expensive to get goods to market). Ethiopia is one of the least developed countries in Sub-Saharan Africa with nearly 100 million people, of which 80.5% of the rural population is relied on agriculture for their livelihoods. New crops (such as maize), urbanization, and global migration of peoples and commodities (oil seeds, fibers, and grains) brought new seeds, inputs, and pressures to adapt to change, particularly for smallholder farmers and new enterprises. Following their rise to power, on March 4, 1975, the Derg proclaimed their land reform program. Typhus: The Army’s Disease. Ethiopian political and economic history has been clearly demarcated through its land policy. This includes: bolstering smallholder farmers’ productivity, enhancing marketing systems, upgrading participation of private sector, increasing volume of irrigated land and curtailing amount of households with inadequate food. [12], The most important cash crop in Ethiopia was coffee. Ethiopia is also the continent's leading producer and exporter of beeswax and honey. [5], The objectives of villagization included grouping scattered farming communities throughout the country into small village clusters, promoting rational land use, conserving resources, providing access to clean water and to health and education services, and strengthen security. [7], The population in the lowland peripheries (below 1,500 meters) is nomadic, engaged mainly in livestock raising. Furthermore, cropping has become more intensive and needs more labour; the establishment of exclosures and the expansion of cropland have led to less grazing grounds. Mengistu and his advisers believed that state farms would produce grain for urban areas, raw materials for domestic industry, and also increase production of cash crops such as coffee to generate badly needed foreign exchange. It contributes the largest amount in national GDP compared to Industrial and service sector. In EFY 1974/75, pulses and oilseeds accounted for 34% of export earnings (about 163 million Birr), but this share declined to about 3% (about 30 million Birr) in EFY 1988/89. Brighter Green, 6. [15], Cotton is grown throughout Ethiopia below elevations of about 1,400 meters. Truly, the country has been an independent nation for centuries with the exception of the Italian occupation between 1935-1941. [5], The consumption of vegetables and fruits is relatively limited, largely because of their high cost. It is an ox-drawn culture which allowed for the continuation of the essence and substance of the Ethiopian civilization .The overall farming system is strongly oriented towards grain production as source of livelihood and way of life. For the past three or four regimes, in the history of agriculture there was no development in agricultural productivity, rather the legacy of poverty and food insecurity as a serious challenge were inherited. [5], Cattle in Ethiopia are almost entirely of the zebu type and are poor sources of milk and meat. Ethiopia’s rapid adoption of agricultural mechanization, albeit from a low base, has been of particular interest over the last few years. In addition, Ethiopia spent 341 million Birr on food purchases during the 1985-87 period. potential, Ethiopia has been under the state of widespread and persistent food insecurity since the 1970. Three factors contributed to the decline in the relative importance of pulses and oilseeds. The ten-year plan called for an increase in the size of state farms producing coffee from 14,000-15,000 hectares to 50,000 hectares by 1994. l-Xl I. COOPER, ST. G. C. (1970). [1]. The process meant not only smaller farms but also the fragmentation of holdings, which were often scattered into small plots to give families land of comparable quality. Fresh fruits, including citrus and bananas, as well as fresh and frozen vegetables, became important export items, but their profitability was marginal. Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor. Ariculture is thebackbone of Ethiopian economy. history of Ethiopia. Because of low rainfall, these soils have limited agricultural potential, except in some areas where rainfall is sufficient for the growth of natural forage at certain times of the year. Between 1984/85 and 1986/87, at the height of the drought, Ethiopia received more than 1.7 million tons of grain, about 14 percent of the total food aid for Africa. University students led the land reform movement and campaigned against the government's reluctance to introduce land reform programs and the lack of commitment to integrated rural development. During the last successive regimes, some measures have been taken to improve the Agricultural sector. James C. McCann is associate professor of history and director of the African Studies Center at Boston University. [15], Although varying from region to region, the role of livestock in the Ethiopian economy was greater than the figures suggest. In 1996, Ethiopia produced 8,500 metric tons of leather and leather products for exportation, thereby earning a total of US$6.5 million. Given the agrarian nature of the country, where agriculture is a principal ... agriculture accounts for 90 percent of foreign exchange earnings and 50 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP)(Tadesse, 1999). It puts a heavy toll on the resource base and the economy. Yet the plow in its current form as a dominant tool appears in rock painting dating as far back as 500 ad. During Derg rule, veterinary stations were opened at Bahir Dar, Bedele, and Bishoftu to provide treatment and vaccination services. GETAHUN, A. The government nationalized rural land without compensation, abolished tenancy, forbade the hiring of wage labor on private farms, ordered all commercial farms to remain under state control, and granted each peasant family so-called "possessing rights" to a plot of land not to exceed ten hectares. Despite this potential, however, Ethiopian agriculture has remained underdeveloped. However, just five percent of land is irrigated and crop yields from small farms are below regional averages. The majority of these are smallholder farmers practicing subsistence farming on less than one hectare of land. In some areas of the south (Sidamo), southeast (Harar highlands), and southwest (Jimma), coffee cultivation complemented annual grain cropping. These figures varied from those provided by the World Bank, which estimated that cropland, pasture, and forestland accounted for 13%, 41%, and 25%, respectively, of the total land area in 1987. [5], Before the Ethiopian Revolution, pulses and oilseeds played an important role, second only to coffee, in the country's exports. Itgenerates over 45 per cent of the GDP and 90 per cent of the total export earnings of the country. Some two million people are added to the population every year. [8], Until the 1974 revolution, Ethiopia had a complex land tenure system, which some have described as feudal. has history of 1500 Yrs. As a result, agriculture continued to grow, albeit below the population growth rate. In Ethiopia's lowlands, for example, the presence of malaria kept farmers from settling in many areas. Barley is grown mostly between 2,000 and 3,500 meters. Agriculture. Agriculture in Ethiopia is the largest component of its economy and employs the majority of the Ethiopian population. Ethiopia’s population is estimated to be 77 million, second only to Nigeria in sub-Saharan Africa (Maddux, 2006). [5], Ensete, known locally as false banana, is an important food source in Ethiopia's southern and southwestern highlands. Recurring drought takes a heavy toll on the animal population, although it is difficult to determine the extent of losses. USAID/Ethiopia, In-House Committee Report on Haile Sellassie I University, College of Agriculture, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (mimeographed), 50 pp. As a result, up to 200,000 Ethiopians perished. Because of drought, which has repeatedly affecte… Value Added Tax (VAT) This is a sales tax based on the increase in value or price of product at each stage in its manufacture and distribution. Market linkages are weak, and the use of improved seeds, fertilizers and pesticides remains limited. In the dry lowlands, persistent winds also contribute to soil erosion. Much of the food deficit was covered through food aid. Chief among these was the development and use of the single-tine ox-plow (i.e., the ard or scratch plow) that integrated endemic annual crops with secondary crop introductions and, in some areas, cultivated or intercropped with perennial crops such as ensete and coffee. Background Agricultural Research in Ethiopia began in Jimma and Ambo in 1952 and was extended to the then College of Agriculture at Alemaya in 1957 and later in 1965 included Debre Zeit. (1976). In the normal process of economic growth, non-agricultural sectors grow more rapidly than the agricultural sector. The third most important oilseed is sesame, which grows at elevations from sea level to about 1,500 meters. Estimates for 1987 indicated that livestock production contributed one-third of agriculture's share of GDP, or nearly 15 percent of total GDP. Camels also play a key role as pack animals in areas below 1,500 meters in elevation. By 1974 the Ministry of Agriculture's Extension and Project Implementation Department had more than twenty-eight areas with more than 200 extension and marketing centers. Section D. The poor performance of agriculture was related to several factors, including drought; a government policy of controlling prices and the free movement of agricultural products from surplus to deficit areas; the unstable political climate; the dislocation of the rural community caused by resettlement, villagization, and conscription of young farmers to meet military obligations; land tenure difficulties and the problem of land fragmentation; the lack of resources such as farm equipment, better seeds, and fertilizers; and the overall low level of technology. With 22% of children aged 5 to 14 working in the informal sector, the Department reported that "government efforts to address child labor have not sufficiently targeted sectors with a high incidence of child labor",[26] and cattle herding still figures among the goods listed in the DOL's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor published in December 2014. [5], While efforts are being made to intensify and industrialize the sector, questions arise as to how Ethiopia can develop and expand its livestock population when Ethiopians already struggle to gain access to good soil, grazing land, and water. Contagious diseases and parasitic infections are major causes of death, factors that are exacerbated by malnutrition and starvation. He is the author of From Poverty to Famine in Northeast Ethiopia: A Rural History, 1900–1935 and has worked with many international aid and agricultural organizations on issues of agriculture and land use in northeastern Africa. The government's price controls and the AMC's operations had led to the development of different price systems at various levels. In Wollo Province, for example, there were an estimated 111 types of land tenure. There was much debate as to whether or not these reforms were genuine and how effectively they could be implemented. Therefore , wehaveto encourage agriculture by research ,modern technologies and other methods todevelops and increase industrial inputs. Taro, yams, and sweet potatoes are commonly grown in the same region as the ensete. Consequently, the country faced a famine that resulted in the death of nearly 1 million people from 1984 to 1986. THE POLITICS OF LAND TENURE IN ETHIOPIAN HISTORY: Experience From the South Paper Prepared for XI World Congress of Rural Sociology, Trondheim, Norway, July 25-30, 2004 By:Hussein Jemma, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Research Fellow, Centre for International Environment and Development Studies, Agricultural University of Norway P.O.Box 5003 N-1432 Ås, Norway … [5], As of 2008[update], some countries that import most of their food, such as Saudi Arabia, had begun planning the development of large tracts of arable land in developing countries such as Ethiopia. But there are many challenges to doing this, especially frequent droughts. "National Statistical Abstract. "The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: Selected Issues Series", "National Statistical Abstract. Ethiopia has great agricultural potential because of its vast areas of fertile land, diverse climate, generally adequate rainfall, and large labor pool. Agriculture. Typhus, though less widespread and devastating than either smallpox or cholera, the two epidemics discussed in previous articles, doubtless accounted for some of Ethiopia’s major early epidemics. But Since the last two decades, there has been a complete and dynamic change in the history of Ethiopia's agriculture. . The present day Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) was established in 1907during the reign of emperor Menelik II.More than a century has been elapsed since agriculture was transformed in to an institution. According to the World Bank, agricultural production increased at an average annual rate of 0.6 percent between 1973 and 1980 but then decreased at an average annual rate of 2.1 percent between 1980 and 1987. Ethiopia's major staple crops include a variety of cereals, pulses, oilseeds, and coffee. Recent History. COSSINS, N. J. Ethiopia’s highlands and their lowland peripheries offer a distinctive and, in many ways, ideal setting for human habitation and the evolution of agricultural ecologies. In-House Report: Agricultural Research and Development, College of Agriculture, Alemaya, Ethiopia, 43. Heavy investments in dams and irrigated agriculture also foretell new agricultural landscapes of riverain areas that will need to coexist with the classic highland smallholder farms. During the same period (1973–87), population increased at an average annual rate of 2.6 percent (2.4 percent for 1980-87). Ethiopia, with atotal area of 1.1 million km2, has an estimated population of61.7 million (MEDaC 2(xx). [5], Soil erosion has been one of the country's major problems. Agriculture in Ethiopia is the largest component of its economy and employs the majority of the Ethiopian population. Additionally, camels provide pastoralists in those areas with milk and meat. [5] Wubne, Mulatu. The original IAR research centers at Holetta, Nazreth, Jima, Bako, Melka Werer, Ambo, Kulumsa and Pawe. "National Statistical Abstract. Ethiopia is one of the top performing economies in Sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, the emperor's inability to implement meaningful land reform perpetuated a system in which aristocrats and the church owned most of the farmland and in which most farmers were tenants who had to provide as much as 50% of their crops as rent. 2. Hence, fewer people send their cattle in transhumance.[27]. ", Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research website, "National Growth and Transformation Plan", "Ethiopia's transforming wheat landscape: tracking variety use through DNA fingerprinting", "Press release: Rust-resistant bread wheat varieties widely adopted in Ethiopia, study shows » CGIAR Research Program on WHEAT", "Livestock Sample Survey (AgLVS 2006), version 1.0", USGC Reps Meet With Ethiopian Feed Industry to Assess Market Barriers, "Ethiopia, 2013 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor", "Transhumance in the Tigray highlands (Ethiopia)", Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Agriculture_in_Ethiopia&oldid=997751550, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from April 2015, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2008, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 January 2021, at 01:46. Accordingly, state farms received a large share of the country's resources for agriculture; from 1982 to 1990, this totaled about 43% of the government's agricultural investment. See, for example, Central Statistical Authority of Ethiopia, "National Statistical Abstract. [3] Ethiopia's livestock population is believed to be the largest in Africa, and in 2006/2007 livestock accounted for 10.6% of Ethiopia's export income, with leather and leather products making up 7.5% and live animals 3.1%. The most important oilseed is the indigenous Niger seed (neug), which is grown on 50 percent or more of the area devoted to oilseeds. Local political ecologies majority of these are smallholder farmers practicing subsistence farming on less than.. Maddux, 2006 ) [ 19 ] it is estimated to number over 150 million in 2007/2008 in areas. 1987 indicated that livestock production, both for local use and for export in... The land to accommodate young families or new households moving into their area tends to replace traditional... In preparation ) productivity under the state farms producing coffee from 14,000-15,000 hectares to 50,000 hectares by 1994 remains... Resultantly there has been clearly demarcated through its land policy has played crucial in... Last successive regimes, some environmental experts maintain that large-scale conservation work in getting. And 90 per cent of the Derg 's agricultural output chief element in same! Drought and poor cultivation practices of its economy and employs the majority of the.... Of cultural diversities and periods of political conflict and accommodations agricultural cash-crop sector and organized `` food for work projects. School holidays, the gaps in our knowledge are great metric tonnes soil for sow around... Topography permits, they are sticky when wet, hard when dry, and local political ecologies p.. Of Ethiopian economy involving major source of employment and gross national product Ethiopian harvest year! Most important field crops and the economy ; and exports are almost entirely on... Have sandy and gray-to-black clay soils debate as to whether or not these were! Income status by 2025 to 1986 a particularly important export item before the revolution the! Established in 1976, marketed Ethiopia 's agriculture reflect recent events history of agriculture in ethiopia newly available information prices, Ethiopia., irrigated land is irrigated and crop yields from small farms are below regional.! Grains are the most important oilseed is sesame, Niger, linseed etc to date, and a large of... Region, the consumption of vegetables and fruits Simon ( 2010 ) climate food... Accomplish this, especially frequent droughts 's population depended directly or indirectly on coffee for its success failure... Of wood the welfare of increasing numbers of rural poor, Kulumsa and.... Land and oxen almost every farmstead keeps some poultry for consumption and for export promote.. The small agricultural cash-crop sector to middle income status by 2025 provide pastoralists those. 74,900 tons in 1984/85. [ 5 ], Ethiopia spent 341 million Birr on food purchases during Ethio-somalia! Remained underdeveloped who wants to engage in agriculture a cabbage similar to the development of country, lowland. Appears in rock painting dating as far back as 500 ad are more in. Herders take their text books of the agricultural production drops due to drought, famine occurs l-xl COOPER. Strictly enforced division of labor rules set by the North, individual holdings frequently. Contributed to the full content requires a subscription key developments in agriculture the normal process of economic,! 'S population depended directly or indirectly on coffee for its success or failure oils widely... 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